Đề cương ôn tập Tiếng Anh Lớp 10 - Mệnh đề quan hệ

Đề cương ôn tập Tiếng Anh Lớp 10 - Mệnh đề quan hệ

Định nghĩa

- Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bằng các đại từ, trạng từ quan hệ quan hệ: Who, What, Which, That vvv

- Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng sau danh từ, bổ sung ý nghĩa cho danh từ, có chức năng bổ sung ý nghĩa như một tính từ nên còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ.

VD: + I live in Hanoi where you visited last year

Mệnh đề quan hệ: Where you visited last year là mệnh đề có chức năng làm rõ nghĩa hơn cho danh từ Hanoi, câu này sử dụng đại từ quan hệ “Where” để nối mệnh đề chính với mệnh đề phụ

 

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Bài tập về mệnh đề quan hệ môn tiếng Anh lớp 10
ĐỊNH NGHĨA VÀ CÁCH SỬ DỤNG. 
Hướng dẫn bạn đọc một số cách dử dụng đại từ quan hệ hay cách dùng who whom which that whose thông dụng nhất đặc biệt sẽ mang tới cho các bạn những trải nghiệm cực kì thú vị. 
1. 1 Định nghĩa
Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bằng các đại từ, trạng từ quan hệ quan hệ: Who, What, Which, Thatvvv
Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng sau danh từ, bổ sung ý nghĩa cho danh từ, có chức năng bổ sung ý nghĩa như một tính từ nên còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ. 
VD: + I live in Hanoi where you visited last year
Mệnh đề quan hệ: Where you visited last year là mệnh đề có chức năng làm rõ nghĩa hơn cho danh từ Hanoi, câu này sử dụng đại từ quan hệ “Where” để nối mệnh đề chính với mệnh đề phụ
1. 2 Các loại mệnh đề quan hệ
WHO : dùng thế cho chủ từ - chỉ người
WHOM : dùng thế cho danh từ - chỉ người
WHICH : dùng thế cho danh từ - vật
WHEN : dùng thế cho thời gian
WHERE : dùng thế cho nơi chốn
THAT : dùng thế cho tất cả các chữ trên ( có 2 ngoại lệ xem phần dưới )
WHOSE : dùng thế cho sở hửu ,người / vật
OF WHICH : dùng thế cho sở hữu vật
WHY : dùng thế cho lý do ( reason /cause )
+ WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT có thể được lược bỏ khi chúng là tân ngữ của MĐQH. 
1. WHO:
làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ
thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người
N (person) + WHO + V + O
2. WHOM:
- làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ - thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người
. . N (person) + WHOM + S + V
Ở vị trí túc từ, whom có thể được thay bằng who. 
Ex: I‟d like to talk to the man whom / whoI met at your birthday party. 
3. WHICH:
- làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ - thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật
. N (thing) + WHICH + V + O
. N (thing) + WHICH + S + V
4. THAT:
Có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định * Các trường hợp thường dùng “that”:
khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất
khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last
khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật
khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none. 
Ex: He was the most interesting person that I have ever met. It was the first time that I heard of it. 
These books are all that my sister left me. 
She talked about the people and places that she had visited. 
* Các trường hợp không dùng that:
trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định
sau giới từ
5. WHOS:
dùng để chỉ sở hữu cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc vật, thường thay cho các từ: her, his, their, hoặc hình thức „s
. . N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V . 
Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định: Là mệnh đề quan hệ dùng đề bổ sung ý nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước, nếu thiếu mệnh đề quan hệ thì nghĩa của danh từ không được rõ ràng, người nghe, đọc không thể hiểu được. 
VD: The man who is wearing the blue sweater is my husband
Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định: dùng để giải thích thêm cho danh từ đứng trước, nếu thiếu mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định thì danh từ vẫn có nghĩa rõ ràng. 
VD: I live in Hanoi where you visited last year. 
6. WHY: mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ lý do, thường thay cho cụm for the reason, for that reason. 
. . N (reason) + WHY + S + V 
Ex: I don‟t know the reason. You didn‟t go to school for that reason. → I don‟t know the reason why you didn‟t go to school. 
7. WHERE: thay thế từ chỉ nơi chốn, thường thay cho there . N (place) + WHERE + S + V . 
(WHERE = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)
Ex: a/ The hotel wasn‟t very clean. We stayed at that hotel. → The hotel where we stayed wasn‟t very clean. 
→ The hotel at which we stayed wasn‟t very clean. 
8. WHEN: thay thế từ chỉ thời gian, thường thay cho từ then . N (time) + WHEN + S + V 
(WHEN = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)
Ex: Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day. 
Do you still remember the day when we first met?
Do you still remember the day on which we first met? I don‟t know the time. She will come back then. 
I don‟t know the time when she will come back. 
Các đại từ, trạng từ quan hệ trong tiếng Anh 2. 1 Các đại từ quan hệ trong tiếng Anh
Đại từ quan hệ Cách dùng và ví dụ:
Who Làm chủ ngữ, dùng đại diện cho người The women who is long hair is my teacher which Làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ, dùng đại diện cho đồ vật, động vật
Bổ sung cho cả câu đứng trước nó The book which is on the table is Ho Chi Minh author whose Dùng để chỉ sự sở hữu cho cả người và vật The man whose yellow car you see is your new boss
whom Dùng đại diện cho tân ngữ chỉ người The girl whom you met yesterday in my house is my sister
That Dùng đại diện cho chủ ngữ chỉ người, vật, đặc biệt trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (who, which vẫn có thê sử dụng được) The book that is on the table is Ho Chi Minh auther
My father is the person that I admire most
2. 2 Các trạng từ quan hệ trong tiếng Anh Trạng từ
Cách dùng &Ví dụ
When Thay thế cho cụm thời gian The month when you visited your mother Where Thay thế cho nơi chốn The place where we married
Why Thay thế cho lí do The reason why he left me
Giới từ đi với đại từ quan hệ trong tiếng Anh
Khi Whom và Which là tân ngữ của giới từ thì trong tiếng Anh trang trọng giới từ được đặt trước đại từ quan hệ. Nhưng thường thì giới từ được chuyển về cuối mệnh đề và trong trường hợp này mệnh đề quan hệ xác định có thể lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ hoặc dùng that thay thế cho whom và which
VD: The man about whom you are talkingis my brother
The picture at which you are looking is very expensive
NHỮNG LƯU Ý KHI DÙNG ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ ( WHO ,WHICH ,WHOM. . . . )
1. Khi nào dùng dấu phẩy ?
Khi danh từ đứng trước who ,which,whom. . . là :
Danh từ riêng ,tên
Ha Noi , which . . . . 
Mary ,who is . . . 
Có this ,that ,these ,those đứng trước danh từ :
This book ,which . . . . 


Có sở hửu đứng trước danh từ :
My mother ,who is . . . . 
Là vật duy nhất ai cũng biết : ( Sun ( mặt trời ) ,moon ( mặt trăng )
The Sun ,which . . . 
2. Đặt dấu phẩy ở đâu ?
- Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ ở giữa thì dùng 2 dấu phẩy đặt ở đầu và cuối mệnh đề
My mother , who is a cook , cooks very well
- Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ ở cuối thì dùng một dấu phẩy đặt ở đầu mệnh đề ,cuối mệnh đề dùng dấu chấm . 
This is my mother , who is a cook . 
3. Khi nào có thể lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ WHO ,WHICH ,WHOM. . . 
- Khi nó làm túc từ và phía trước nó không có dấu phẩy ,không có giới từ ( whose không được bỏ
This is the book which I buy. 
Ta thấy which là túc từ ( chủ từ là I ,động từ là buy ) ,phía trước không có phẩy hay giới từ gì cả nên có thể bỏ which đi :
-> This is the book I buy. 
This is my book , which I bought 2 years ago. 
Trước chữ which có dấu phẩy nên không thể bỏ được . 
This is the house in which I live . 
Trước which có giới từ in nên cũng không bỏ which đựơc . 
This is the man who lives near my house. 
Who là chủ từ (của động từ lives) nên không thể bỏ nó được . 
4. Khi nào KHÔNG ĐƯỢC dùng THAT :
- Khi phía trước nó có dấu phẩy hoặc giới từ :
This is my book , that I bought 2 years ago. (sai) vì phía trước có dấu phẩy -phải dùng which This is the house in that I live . (sai) vì phía trước có giới từ in - phải dùng which
5. Khi nào bắt buộc dùng THAT
- Khi danh từ mà nó thay thế gồm 2 danh từ trở lên trong đó vừa có ngừơi vừa có vật
The man and his dog that . . . . 
That thay thế cho : người và chó
I. Cách rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh Có 3 dạng đề rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ:
1. V-ing: present participle. 
Chỉ rút gọn khi MĐQH ở thể chủ động. Cách rút gọn như sau:
Bỏ từ quan hệ. 
Bỏ động từ "tobe" nếu có. 
Đưa động từ chính ở MĐQH về dạng V-ing. 
Ví dụ: The man who is sitting on the chair is my father. 
=> The man sitting on the chair is my father. 
2. V-ed/pp: past participle. 
Chỉ rút gọn khi MĐQH ở thể bị động. Cách rút gọn như sau:
Bỏ từ quan hệ
Bỏ động từ "tobe". 
Đưa động từ chính ở MĐQH về dạng V-pp hoặc cột 3. 
Ví dụ: My Tam who was known as a famous singer is over there. 
=> My Tam, known as a famous singer is over there. 
3. To-inf. 
Công thức như sau: S + V +. . . . (for + Someone) + to-inf. 
Ví dụ:
English is an important language which we have to master. 
=> English is an important language for us to master. 
Lưu ý:
·
·

Trong mệnh đề quan hệ có động từ là các dạng của "to be" thì bỏ "to be" và đại từ quan hệ. 
Trong mệnh đề quan hệ có động từ không phải là các dạng của "to be" thì đổi động từ chính sang dạngV-ing và bỏ đại từ quan hệ. 
Ví dụ:
Bill Clinton, (who is) the President of the US, is from Arkansas. (sau to be là 1 danh từ)
Clothes (which are) wet from the rain can be hung here. (sau to be là tính từ)
People (who are) from Iowa are especially nice. (sau to be là giới từ)
The money (which/that was) lying on the table . . . or The money which/that lay on the table
. . . = The money lying on the table was mine. 
The money (that had been) placed on the table was mine. 
II. Luyện tập rút ngắn mệnh đề quan hệ
The man who is standing there is a clown. 
The envelop which lies on the table has no stamp on it. 
Benzene, which was discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives. 
My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house. 
The student don't know how to do exercise which were given by the teacher yesterday. 
The diagrams which were made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812. 
The gentleman who lives next door to me is a well-known orator. 
All the astronauts who are orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless. 
All students don't hand in their papers will fail in the exam. 
I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm. 
The street which leads to the school is very wide. 
The system which is used here is very successful. 
Mr. John, who teaches my son, is my neighbor. 
Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London. 
The candidates who are sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam. 
We are driving on the road which was built in 1980. 
Customers who complain about the service should see the manager. 
The city which was destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt. 
My brother, who met you yesterday, works for a big firm. 
The vegetable which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals. 
KEYS
The man standing there is a clown. 
The envelop lies on the table has no stamp on it. 
Benzene, discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives. 
My grandmother, being old and sick, never goes out of the house. 
The student don't know how to do exercise given by the teacher yesterday. 
The diagrams made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812. 
The gentleman living next door to me is a well-known orator. 
All the astronauts orbiting the earth in space capsules a ...  Bill, who won the race last year, hopes to win again. 
His new car, which he paid $ 15,000 for, has broken down. 
Her car, whose tyres were bad, skedded on the wet road. 
Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định cung cấp thêm thông tin về người hoặc vật được nói đến. 
Ex: Peter, who spoke French well, offered to interpret. 
Giữa danh từ/ đại từ và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định có dấu phảy. 
Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định là thành phần có thể lược bỏ trong câu. Bài tập về mệnh đề quan hệ. 
EXERCISE RELATIVE CLAUSES
Ex1: Fill in the blank with the correct relative pronoun. 
1. There are eighteen different kinds of penguins ______ live south of the equator. 
2. Thank you very much for the present ______ you sent me. 
3. This is Mrs. Jones, ______ son won the championship last year. 
4. His girlfriend, ______ he trusted absolutely, turned out to be an enemy spy. 
5. The bus crashed into a queue of people, four of _______ were killed. 
6. A man bought in a little girl, ______ hand was cut by flying glass. 
7. Mary, ______ boyfriend didn‟t turn up, ended by having lunch with Peter. 
8. He paid me $5 for cleaning ten windows, most of _______ hadn‟t been cleaned for at least a year. 
9. In prison they fed us on dry bread, most of ______ was moldy. 10. The chair in _____ I was sitting suddenly collapsed. 
11. The bed ______ I slept on has no mattress. 
12. The man _______ I was waiting for didn‟t turn up. 
13. The student with ________ she was dancing had a slight limb. 
Ex2: Put a tick if the relative pronoun in the following sentences can be deleted, and put a cross if it is not. 
We lit a fire, which soon dried out clothes. 
The report, which should have taken an hour and a half, took three hours. 
The children who I was looking after were terribly spoilt. 
She thanked him for the kind help that she received. 
There wasn‟t any directory in the telephone box from which I was phoning. 
The man who was driving us didn‟t know the way. 
The Smiths, whose house was destroyed in the explosion, were given rooms in the hotel. 
The car which we hired from the airport broke down on the road. 
My boss, who I really wanted to see, was too busy to meet anyone. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jones, who were out playing cards, knew nothing of the burglary. 
Ex3: Choose the best answer
1. I have two sisters ________________are doctors. 
A. both of which	B. who both	C. both of whom	D. whom both
Do you remember the day ? I first met you on that day. 
Do you remember the day where I first met you ?
Do you remember the day when I first meet you ?
Do you remember the day on which I first met you ?
B and C are correct. 
Mexico City ,_____ is the fastest growing city in the world , has a population of over 10 million. 

A. what
B. which
C. that
D. where
4. We visited the church _____________ in the 18th century. 


A. was built
B. which built
C. building
D. which was built
5. 
Ms Young, to ______ many of her students are writing, is living happily and

peacefully in Canada. 




A. who
B. whom

C. that
D. whose
6. 
She is the woman ____________ sister looks after the baby for us. 


A. who
B. whom

C. that
D. whose
7. 
Mr Smith, ______is a retired teacher, does volunteer work at the hospital. 

A. that
B. whom
C. who
D. is

8. 
I want to know the reason________ he told you last night. 


A. Why
B. which

C. where
D. when
I like the teacher. I learnt English with her in high school. 
A. I like the teacher with whom I learnt English in high school. B. I like the teacher whom I learnt English with in high school. C. I like the teacher that I learnt English with in high school. 
D. all are correct. 
11. The banker to________ I gave my check was quite friendly. 
A. who	B. that	C. whom	D. which
12. All of us are waiting for the man ___________ son was lost. 
A. who	B. which	C. whom	D. whose
13. The girl ______ is our neighbor. 
B. is talking to the lady over there D. talking to the lady over there

14. My computer, _________ mouse doesn't work, cannot be used now. 

A. while
B. because

C. whose
D. which
15. What‟s the name of the man_________car you borrowed?

A. who
B. which

C. that
D. whose

The young woman who lives next door is very kind to my family. A. The young woman to live next door is very kind to my family. B. The young woman he lives next door is very kind to my family. C. The young woman living next door is very kind to my family. D. The young woman lived next door is very kind to my family. 
She didn‟t tell me the reason _______ she came late. 

A. when
B. for which
C. why
D. both B and C
18. 
This is the best play ________ I have ever seen. 


A. which
B. what
C. whom
D. that
19. 
I know a nearby restaurant _____ has seafood. 


A. that
B. who
C. where
D. whose

Taj Mahal, _____ by Shah Janhan for his wife, is thought to be one of the great architectural wonders of the world. 

A. being built
B. was built
C. which was built
D. been built
21. 
Mr. Jones, ______I was working, was generous about overtime payments. 

A. he
B. for whom
C. for him
D. whom
22. 
Is this the address to ____________ you want the package sent ?


A. where
B. which
C. that
D. whom
23. 
London is the city ________I have visited several times. 


A. in which
B. where
C. in that
D. which
24. 
One of the girls________in that company caused an accident


A. worked
B. who worked
C. whom worked
D. whose worked

The computer, _____ hard disk has just been upgraded, is among the latest generations. 
A. that
B. whose
C. of which
D. which of
26. 
The girl ________me this gift is my best friend. 


A. presented
B. was presenting
C. presenting
D. be presenting
27. 
He lent me many picture-books, most of________I had read. 


A. whom
B. who
C. whose
D. which
28. 
Don't drink too much beer, ________will make us fat. 


A. which
B. when
C. who
D. whom
29. 
The friend to ________ he was talking on the phone is English. 


A. who
B. whose
C. whom
D. which
30. Why do you always believe in everything________ he says?


A. who
B. which
C. when
D. that
31. 
There are a lot of people at my friend's wedding party, only a few of ________I had met before. 

A. who
B. whose
C. whom
D. which


32. 
Aberdeen, ________ my brother lives, is a town in Scotland. 


A. where

B. which
C. who
D. when
33. 
My parents live in the same house ________ they bought 50 years ago. 


A. that

B. which
C. where
D. A and C
34. 
August is the month______I always give my birthday parties. 


A. which

B. in which
C. what
D. why
35. 
The people to_______she was speaking didn't know German. 


A. who

B. whose
C. that
D. whom
36. 
Sunday is the day
_________ most of the Christians usually go to church. 

A. in which

B. when
C. that
D. at which
Joyce Bews,________ was born and grew up in Portsmouth on the south coast of England,
________she still lives, was 100 last year. 

A. that / in which B. who / where C. that / where
D. whom / where
38. 
According to the research, the time at______ most road accidents happen is early evening. 

A. when
B. which
C. whose
D. that
39. 
The girls and
the flowers _____he painted were vivid. 



A. who

B. which
C. whose
D. that
40. We go to school regularly,__________________ . 



A. that makes our teacher happy
B. which makes our teacher happily


C. it makes our teacher happy
D. which makes our teacher happy
41. 
The letter _________ grandma was kept carefully in a box. 


A. you wrote
B. which you wrote to


C. to whom wrote
D. which wrote



Sue lives in the house. The house is opposite my house. A. Sue lives in the house which is opposite my house. B. Sue lives in the house who is opposite my house. 
C. Sue lives in the house where is opposite my house. D. Sue lives in the house and which is opposite my house
Computers cannot operate without the programmes,________ are often called software. 
A. which	B. that	C. in which	D. with which
Ex 4: Join each pair of sentences using relative pronouns :
1. The man didn‟t come back again. I shouted at him. 
à. 
The television never worked again. I dropped it. 
à. 
The machine was broken. I hired it. 
à. . . . . . . . . . . 
The clothes were beautiful. She bought some clothes. 
à. 
The wall fell down after three weeks. They built the wall. 
à. 
The policeman wasn‟t very helpful. I asked him. 
à
7. I didn‟t really like the car. We bought it. 
à. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8. I lost the money. I borrowed it from John. 
à
She is the most intelligent woman. I‟ve ever met this woman. 
à
. This doctor is famous. You visited him yesterday. 
à . 
11. These children are orphans. She is taking care of these children. 
à . . . 
12. My father goes swimming everyday. You met him this morning. 
à. . . 
13. The man is my father. I respect this man most. 
à
14. The man is my father. I respect his opinion most. 
à
15. Mary and Margaret are twins. You met them yesterday. 
à. . 
I‟ll introduce you to the man. His support is necessary for your project. à
The middle-aged man is the director. My father is talking to him. 
à
The boy is my cousin. You make fun of him. 
à
The student is from china. He sits next to me. 
à
I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me. à
. . 
Ex 5 : Write relative pronouns to complete these sentences. 
We visited the school ___________ my father taught. 
I met her last month, ___________ she came to our house. 
We all looked at the place ___________ the fire had started. 
Did they tell you the reason ___________ they were late?
The cat sat on the wall ___________ it had a good view of the birds. 
They arrived in the evening, at a time ___________ we were all out. 
I couldn‟t understand the reason ___________ they were so rude. 
I met him in the cafeù ___________ he was working as a waiter. 
I listen to music late at night, ___________ the children have gone to bed. 
I bought them in August, ___________ I was in France. 
Let me see all the letters _______ you have written. 
Is there any one ________ can help me do this?
Mr. Brown, _________ is only 34, is the director of this company. 
I know a place __________ roses grow in abundance. 
It was the nurse ________ told me to come in. 
The teacher with ________, we studied last year no longer teaches in our school. 
They showed me the hospital ________ buildings had been destroyed by US bombings. 
We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front. 
Dr. Fleming, _______ discovered penicillin, was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1945. 
He joined the political party _______ was in power. 
Love, ________ is a wonderful feeling, comes to everyone at some time in his life. 
Freedom is something for _______ millions have given their lives. 
It is easy to find faults in people ________ we dislike. 
The really happy people are those _______ enjoy their daily work. 
We must find a time _______ we can meet and a place _______ we can talk. 

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